○ Results show that while poor countries have more restrictive trade regimes, they also face higher barriers on their exports. This may be explained by reciprocity in multilateral and bilateral trade agreements: what you get in terms of market access depends on what you are ready to give up in terms of protection at home.
○ NTBs contribute to a large share of trade restrictiveness across countries. On average, they add an additional 87% to the restrictiveness imposed by tariffs.
○ NTBs should be a priority for trade negotiators, particularly for those seeking better access to developed countries
markets, where the restrictiveness of NTBs is shown to be stronger.