(a) a dummy variable equal to one if the importing country notifies at least one barrier at the six-digit level of the HS classification
(b) a frequency index
(c) an ad valorem equivalent
○ The frequency index is defined as the proportion of HS6 product items notified by the importing country within a HS4 product category.
○ Gravity model
○ SPS and TBT measures have on the whole a negative impact on trade in agricultural products.
○ OECD exporters are not significantly affected by these measures in their exports to other OECD members.
○ On the other hand, exports of developing and least developed countries to OECD countries are significantly reduced by these regulations.
○ The negative impact of SPS and TBTs is higher if we focus only on exports to the EU market
○ While EU countries notify less SPS and TBTs than other OECD countries, econometrics shows that these measures are more trade-impeding than the ones adopted by other OECD countries.
○ much remains to be done to improve the position of developing and least developed countries in the international agricultural trade.
○ Technical and financial assistance to these countries to help them match the requirements imposed by SPS and TBT measures and increase their participation in the international standards organizations should be a priority within the global food system.